Have you recently devised a business idea, laid out the plans, and now eager to mark your presence online? Or perhaps, you've already built a solid reputation offline and now aim to extend your presence to the digital world. Either way, the next question is: which website platform should you choose?

If you're looking for the perfect website designing platform, you've landed on the right page. With numerous options out there, WordPress and Squarespace stand out as popular choices. They both bring their A-game to the table, but you'll need to pick one that aligns with your preferences. 

To make this decision easier, we've thoroughly examined and crafted an article comparing WordPress vs Squarespace.

Read through our analysis, and by the end or somewhere in between, you'll find the answer to your dilemma.

WordPress vs Squarespace: 11 Key Differences

WordPress and Squarespace are both great choices for making attractive and user-friendly websites. While WordPress provides a wide range of customization features, Squarespace is praised for its ease of use.

Each platform has its strengths, so let's compare them based on different factors to help you decide which is the right pick for you.

Quick Comparison: WordPress vs Squarespace





Ease of Use

Flexible, but may have a steeper learning curve

User-friendly interface, easy for beginners

Design and Features

Highly customizable, extensive theme options

Stylish templates, limited customization

Page Builders

Powerful page builders available (e.g., Elementor)

Built-in drag-and-drop editor


Excellent with numerous SEO plugins

SEO features but less customization and optimization


Advanced e-commerce through WooCommerce

Integrated e-commerce features

Content Ownership

Full control and ownership of your content

Content ownership lies within Squarespace

Hosting & Data Migration

Requires separate hosting, offers pixel-perfect migration

All-in-one hosting, limited migration options

Plugins and Integration

Extensive plugin ecosystem for customization

Limited plugins and third-party integrations


Security depends on hosting and plugins and requires manual updations

Built-in security features, less control


Powerful blogging capabilities with various options

Good for blogging but with fewer features

Pricing and Value

Flexible pricing; additional hosting, plugins and themes costs

Various subscription plans from $16 per month to $49 per month

The brief comparison table likely gave you a snapshot of the features of both platforms. Now, let's dive into each parameter in more detail.

1. WordPress vs Squarespace: Ease of Use

Ease of use is a key factor in building your website. It impacts how quickly you can get started and how smoothly you can manage your content.

This article on WordPress vs Squarespace will help you understand which platform might be more convenient for your website creation journey.

WordPress offers a hosted and self-hosted solution. The self-hosted solution gives users full control over their website's hosting and customization. It offers a high level of flexibility, allowing users to create various websites.


To set up a WordPress website, you need to obtain a domain and hosting, which may not be a simple step for beginners. The user interface of WordPress can be overwhelming for beginners.

Although there's a learning curve, once mastered, WordPress provides unparalleled control over every aspect of a website.

Key Features:

  • Learning curve involved but provides unparalleled control
  • Requires obtaining a domain and hosting
  • Access to responsive themes for mobile optimization
  • High level of flexibility for creating diverse websites
  • Page-builder plugins for extensive website customization

There are responsive themes and page-builder plugins for customizing your website. The customization involves navigating through various menus and settings. Due to this extensive feature set, WordPress can be less intuitive for inexperienced users. 

Squarespace is an all-in-one website builder that simplifies the website design process. It's a hosted platform, so users don't have to worry about managing hosting.

squarespace dashboard ease of use

Squarespace offers professionally designed templates that are appealing and mobile-responsive. Users can choose a template, customize it using a drag-and-drop editor, and easily add content without any coding knowledge.

The platform is designed for simplicity, making it a great choice for beginners. 

Key Features:

  • Professionally designed, mobile-responsive templates
  • Customization via drag-and-drop editor
  • Content addition without coding knowledge
  • Beginner-friendly design interface
  • Ideal for users with minimal technical expertise

Squarespace's user interface is user-friendly and streamlined. The platform takes care of the hosting, security and updates automatically. Its simplicity is a significant advantage for those with minimal technical expertise.

However, Squarespace lacks the customization options as compared to WordPress. 

? Squarespace is easier!
  • Squarespace is super easy for beginners with its drag-and-drop simplicity. WordPress has more features but a steeper learning curve.

Certainly, Squarespace is more user-friendly, but ease of use is not the sole determining factor. Let's evaluate both WordPress and Squarespace by examining their design and layout features.

2. WordPress vs Squarespace: Design and Features

When deciding between WordPress and Squarespace, understanding their design capabilities and features is key. Choosing the right balance ensures your website not only looks great but also functions effectively, contributing to a positive user experience.

This comparison will highlight how each platform approaches design and the features they offer.

WordPress excels in providing customization and design flexibility. With its themes and pre-designed templates, you can build beautiful websites. Plus, it offers endless flexibility to give your website a personalized touch. 

wordpress themes and features

WordPress suits both beginners and advanced users. It allows customization through coding for those who are more experienced. For beginners, it provides user-friendly builders. Its plugin ecosystem adds functionalities ranging from SEO optimization to e-commerce capabilities. 

Key Features:

  • Diverse range of themes available
  • Plugins for enhanced functionality
  • Customizable themes to suit different needs
  • Continuous theme and plugin updates

Its unparalleled customisation makes it ideal for those who appreciate control over every aspect of their site's appearance and functionality.

Squarespace is a user-friendly platform that focuses on design aesthetics. Its professionally crafted templates provide a sleek and modern look for your website.

Squarespace could be your ideal choice if you value simplicity and want a website that looks good without much tweaking.

squarespace templates library 1

In terms of features, Squarespace offers an all-in-one solution. It integrates domain registration, hosting, and website-building tools seamlessly. While it might not have an extensive plugin library, it compensates with the built-in features.

Key Features:

  • User-friendly platform with focus on design
  • Professionally crafted, sleek templates
  • Ideal for simplicity with great website appearance
  • Built-in features compensate for limited plugins
  • Emphasis on sleek and modern aesthetics

Squarespace provides a streamlined user experience. It is ideal for those who want an elegant website without coding. It's an excellent choice for small businesses, portfolios, or personal sites.

? Squarespace is the design winner!
  • Squarespace shines in design with elegant templates and built-in features, making it great for visually striking websites. WordPress offers more design flexibility and features through plugins but requires more effort.

Suggested Reading: Explore these web design trends that can help you enhance the quality of your website design.

3. WordPress vs Squarespace: Page Builders

Page builders play a crucial role in website creation, enabling users to design and customize their site's layout without extensive coding. Both WordPress and Squarespace offer different approaches to page building.

WordPress is known for its extensive page builders. Various page builder plugins are available, with Elementor, Divi, and Beaver Builder being popular choices.


One of the key advantages of WordPress page builders is the level of customization they offer. Users can design layouts, add elements, and control the appearance of their site with precision.

The availability of third-party plugins widens the range of design options, and users can switch between different page builders if needed.

Key Features:

  • Multiple page builder plugin options
  • Compatibility with third-party plugins
  • Support for multimedia content
  • Advanced styling and design controls

However, many choices can overwhelm beginners, and not all page builders are created equal. The learning curve can vary; some may require additional time and effort.

Squarespace provides an integrated, built-in page builder. This means users don't need to install additional plugins or make choices between various builders.

The Squarespace page builder features a drag-and-drop interface with pre-built content blocks.


Squarespace's page builder simplifies the design process, making it accessible for users who may not have technical expertise. It ensures a consistent design experience across different website sections.

Templates are also designed with the page builder in mind, ensuring a seamless integration of elements.

Key Features:

  • Integrated drag-and-drop page builder
  • Responsive designs for all devices
  • Pre-designed content sections for ease
  • Grid-based layouts for flexibility
  • Multimedia embedding capabilities

Yet, the built-in Squarespace page builder has limitations in terms of third-party integrations and extensibility. Users may find themselves confined to the features and options provided by Squarespace, with less room for extensive customization.

? Choose WordPress for more control!
  • If you prefer simplicity, go for Squarespace; if you want more control over page design, choose WordPress with external builders.

Pro Tip: When starting your fully customized website design, opt for Elementor as your page builder. Explore our guide on utilizing Elementor Page Builder to gain comprehensive insights and master its functionalities.

4. WordPress vs Squarespace: SEO

Search Engine Optimization, is a critical aspect of building a successful online presence. Let's compare WordPress vs Squarespace in terms of their SEO capabilities:

WordPress is well-regarded for its SEO-friendly nature. It allows extensive customization and supports a vast array of SEO plugins. Popular plugins like Yoast SEO and All in One SEO pack provide tools to optimize content, meta tags, and other critical SEO elements.


With WordPress, you can optimize individual pages and posts with targeted keywords, meta descriptions, and other SEO-friendly elements. It also allows users to customize URL structures, making it easier to create clean, keyword-rich URLs that search engines favour.

Key Features:

  • Customizable meta tags and descriptions
  • SEO-friendly URL structure
  • Image optimization for better rankings
  • Sitemaps for search engine indexing
  • Canonical URLs for content hierarchy

WordPress users can also implement various speed optimization techniques, including caching plugins and image optimization, to enhance site performance.

Squarespace comes with built-in SEO features, including customizable title tags, meta descriptions, and URL slugs. With Squarespace, users rely on the platform's built-in features rather than third-party tools. 


Squarespace automatically generates URL structures based on the page or post title. While this simplifies the process for beginners, it may not provide the same level of control as WordPress for SEO optimization.

Key Features:

  • Built-in SEO features for ease
  • Automatic SEO optimization for content
  • SEO-friendly URL structures
  • Integration with Google Search Console

Also, the lack of content portability can be a consideration for those concerned about long-term SEO strategies.

? Choose WordPress for visibility!
  • WordPress is strong in SEO, allowing extensive customization with plugins and features like customizable URLs. Squarespace also supports SEO but may have limitations compared to the comprehensive options available in WordPress.

Read Recommendation: We suggest you to read the article: Get Started with SEO. This blog is ideal for beginners and can help in formulating an effective strategy for optimizing your content and achieving higher search engine rankings.

5. WordPress vs Squarespace: E-Commerce

For those venturing into online business, the e-commerce capabilities of a website platform are paramount.

Let's explore the e-commerce capabilities, emphasizing the importance of selecting a platform that aligns with your business needs and provides a seamless online shopping experience for your customers.

WordPress, with its WooCommerce plugin, is a customizable platform for e-commerce. WooCommerce is one of the most popular e-commerce plugins, allowing users to turn their WordPress site into a fully functional online store.


WordPress plugin provides many features, including product management, payment gateway integration, and inventory tracking.

One of the key strengths of WordPress for e-commerce lies in its flexibility. Users can choose their hosting provider, enabling scalability and performance optimization.

Key Features:

  • WooCommerce plugin for robust e-commerce
  • Diverse payment gateway integrations
  • Extensive store customization options
  • Inventory management capabilities
  • Scalability for small to large-scale stores

While the flexibility of WordPress is a significant advantage, it requires users to take responsibility for certain technical aspects such as security and updates. You must ensure the chosen plugins are compatible and regularly updated to maintain a secure and stable online store.

Squarespace offers built-in e-commerce functionality. It provides e-commerce features such as product listings, inventory management, and secure checkout, all within its user-friendly interface.


Key Features:

  • Integrated e-commerce functionality
  • Seamless store setup and management
  • Mobile-responsive shopping experience
  • Versatile product display options
  • Secure checkout process

The advantage of Squarespace for e-commerce lies in its seamless integration with website design. Users can create an appealing online store using Squarespace's templates and built-in tools. This approach particularly benefits users who prioritize a consistent brand image.

? Squarespace tops for small E-commerce stores!
  • Squarespace leads e-commerce with built-in tools, ideal for simpler online selling. It offers a user-friendly experience without the need for additional plugins.

Recommended Reading: Ensure your ecommerce website stands out with these valuable tips on ecommerce web design. Enhance your site's visual appeal and functionality by incorporating these effective ecommerce web design strategies.

6. WordPress vs Squarespace: Content Ownership

Understanding who controls your content is crucial for flexibility, mobility, and overall autonomy in managing your online presence. Let's explore why content ownership is fundamental when comparing WordPress vs Squarespace.

WordPress allows you to have full control over your website's content. Your content is stored in a database, and you can export it for backup or migration purposes.


When it comes to content ownership, WordPress provides the utmost flexibility. You can switch hosts or move your website without any restrictions. This is helpful for users who want to manage their content.

Key Features:

  • Complete ownership of content
  • Self-hosted platform control
  • Own your domain and hosting
  • Freedom to export data at will
  • No restrictions on content control

Yet, you need to handle technical aspects like hosting, security and updates yourself. It requires some technical knowledge or a skilled web developer for better functionality.

Squarespace is a closed platform that provides an all-in-one solution for building websites. Your website is hosted on its servers, and you don't have full authority over your content.


Your content is hosted on their company's infrastructure licensed to Squarespace, and you are bound by their terms of service. You are giving Squarespace the full rights and authority to your content by agreeing to their terms and conditions. 

Key Features:

  • Squarespace retains rights to content hosted on their platform
  • Limited control over hosting environment
  • Platform-owned domain hosting
  • Restricted data export options
  • Content control within platform limitations

Squarespace does allow you to export some of your content, such as blog posts and pages, which is useful for backups or moving to another Squarespace site. However, if you switch to a completely different platform, the process might not be as straightforward, and certain elements may not transfer seamlessly.

? Choose WordPress and own your content!
  • WordPress gives users complete control over their content, allowing them to determine its location and facilitating easy migration.

Certainly, with WordPress, you have full ownership of your content, simplifying the migration process. Let's now compare WordPress and Squarespace in terms of their hosting capabilities and data migration features.

7. WordPress vs Squarespace: Flexible Hosting & Data Migration

The hosting platform is like the backbone of your website, and data migration ensures how easily you can move your content to optimize performance.

Join us as we highlight the importance of hosting and data migration in making an informed decision about your website platform.

WordPress offers flexible hosting options, allowing you to choose a hosting provider that suits your needs. This flexibility means you can select a hosting plan that aligns with your website's size and traffic.


When it comes to site migration, WordPress simplifies the process. You can export your content and import it into your new hosting environment. This ensures minimal downtime and a seamless experience for your visitors.

The flexibility in hosting extends to the types of servers you can use. WordPress works well with shared hosting, virtual private servers (VPS), and dedicated servers. This means you can scale your hosting infrastructure to ensure optimal performance.

Key Features:

  • Squarespace retains rights to content hosted on its platform
  • Limited control over the hosting environment
  • Platform-owned domain hosting
  • Restricted data export options
  • Content control within platform limitations

Additionally, WordPress provides helpful tools and documentation to guide you through the migration process. The platform makes hosting and site migration accessible for beginners and experienced users.

Squarespace simplifies the hosting process by including it in the package. It provides an all-in-one solution for those who don't want separate hosting providers. 


Key Features:

  • All-in-one hosting solution
  • Simplified website hosting setup
  • Squarespace manages hosting infrastructure
  • Seamless data transfer within Squarespace
  • Hosted exclusively on Squarespace servers

Data migration with Squarespace mirrors the plug-and-play concept. It offers straightforward import tools if you're switching to another platform. However, if you migrate to Squarespace, certain elements may need manual adjustments.

? Rule hosting and migration with WordPress!
  • WordPress allows you to choose your hosting and ensures pixel-perfect website migration. You can easily move your content from one hosting to another.  

Pro Tip: Before initiating the migration process, thoroughly audit and document your current website structure, content, and functionality. For a seamless and pixel-perfect migration, explore our website migration services.

8. WordPress vs Squarespace: Plugins and Integration

The extra features and functionalities offered by plugins enhance your website's performance. Understanding the importance of having a variety of plugins and seamless integration options can be key to tailoring your website to suit your specific needs.

So, let's start exploring the plugins and their importance!

WordPress plugins enhance your website by adding specific features and functionalities. These plugins allow you to extend its capabilities without complex coding. To integrate a plugin, you can install and activate through the WordPress dashboard.


Whether you want to improve SEO, add a contact form, or integrate social media, there's likely a plugin available. Anyone can enhance their site using these tools.

Key Features:

  • Extensive library of diverse plugins
  • Integration with third-party tools
  • Customizable plugins for specific needs
  • Plugins for SEO, e-commerce, and more
  • Open-source ecosystem for developers

Regular updates from plugin developers ensure compatibility with the latest WordPress versions. With the vast array of plugins, you can build a customized website.

In the world of plugins, Squarespace takes a more curated approach. It offers quality integrations that align with its ethos. Squarespace ensures that the plugins maintain a certain standard of performance and design.


Key Features:

  • Integrated features within the platform
  • Native functionalities without traditional plugins
  • In-built tools and features for website management
  • Simplified integrations with select services
  • Built-in tools for e-commerce, SEO, and more

The platform provides integrations for social media connections, e-commerce tools, and analytics. These integrations are simple and easy to use. Thus, Squarespace may not have extensive plugins, but its curated list provides a great experience. 

? WordPress is a clear winner!
  • WordPress stands out with a vast plugin library for added functionality and customization. Squarespace has fewer native integrations, limiting plugin options.

Now that we've established WordPress's superiority over Squarespace in terms of plugins, let's proceed to evaluate both website builders on their approaches to ensuring website security. Let's evaluate their performance in fortifying the safety of your website.

9. WordPress vs Squarespace: Security

Security is one of the critical features of both platforms. It is crucial for protecting your content and your visitors to build trust and reliability. Let's examine the security features of these platforms to help you make an informed decision.

WordPress takes security seriously, but a significant factor lies in the user's responsibility. WordPress offers a robust core, but users must regularly update their themes and plugins. These plugins include security options to add an extra layer of protection.


Choosing reliable hosting is crucial for a secure WordPress experience. Many hosting providers offer specialized WordPress hosting with built-in security features. 

Key Features:

  • Access to various security plugins for enhanced protection
  • Continuous updates to core software and plugins
  • Ability to assign specific roles and permissions
  • Options for secure hosting providers
  • Provision for adding an extra layer of security with 2FA

Additionally, strong passwords and two-factor authentication can protect your WordPress site against potential intruders.

Squarespace takes a different approach to security, providing an all-encompassing shield for its users. The platform handles security measures on the backend, sparing users the need to delve into technicalities.


Squarespace comes with an SSL certificate to keep your site safe and secure.

Key Features:

  • SSL security for encrypted data transmission
  • Built-in security measures
  • Regular updates and patches applied automatically
  • Protection against Distributed Denial of Service attacks
  • Secure payment gateways ensure transaction safety

Updates and patches are handled by Squarespace automatically, minimizing the risk of vulnerabilities. While it may not offer an extensive array of security plugins, it compensates with a simplified, hassle-free security approach.

? Squarespace handles security on its own!
  • Both WordPress and Squarespace prioritize security, but WordPress requires more active management. WordPress has a vast range of security plugins, while Squarespace handles complete security.

Pro Tip for Website Security: Prioritize SSL website security. Implementing SSL encrypts data exchanged between users and your site and enhances trust by displaying the secure padlock icon in the browser. This can boost your website's security and credibility.

10. WordPress vs Squarespace: Blogging

Whether you're a passionate writer, a business owner, or someone with a unique perspective, blogging provides a platform to express yourself and connect with others. 

When it comes to choosing a platform for your blog, WordPress and Squarespace are two big players. Let's explore the essential parameters for blogging on both platforms, helping you decide which suits your needs best.

WordPress started as a blogging platform and has retained its crown through the years. The array of themes and customizable options make it a haven for bloggers of all kinds.

Whether you're a casual writer or a professional content creator, WordPress caters to your narrative needs.


The wide range of plugins enhances the blogging experience on WordPress. You can fine-tune your blog from SEO optimization to social media sharing.

The editor is intuitive, allowing you to focus on your content without getting into technicalities. Whether you're embedding multimedia or drafting a plain text post, WordPress offers a seamless process.

Key Features:

  • Intuitive editor for easy content creation and publishing
  • Access to themes tailored specifically for blogs
  • Built-in commenting system for engaging with readers
  • Schedule posts for future publishing dates
  • Seamlessly embed images, videos, and audio files

The blogging community on WordPress is vibrant. You can now easily engage with your readers using comments, tags, and categories. This way, WordPress remains the go-to platform for bloggers.

Squarespace's free blogger templates provide an appealing backdrop for your content. You can choose from templates that allow users to contribute and set permissions. 


The blogging tools are integrated seamlessly into the platform, making it easy for beginners. The focus is on providing essential blogging elements without overwhelming users with choices.

Key Features:

  • SSL security for encrypted data transmission
  • Built-in security measures
  • Regular updates and patches are applied automatically
  • Protection against Distributed Denial of Service attacks
  • Secure payment gateways ensure transaction safety

The Squarespace editor is user-friendly, allowing you to drag and drop elements effortlessly. It's an excellent choice for those who want an uncomplicated blogging experience with a touch of sophistication. The comments and sharing features are streamlined, ensuring your focus remains on crafting compelling content.

? WordPress is the bloggers' choice!
  • When comparing WordPress vs Squarespace, WordPress remains the king of blogging, with powerful features, categories, and tags. While Squarespace is good for basic blogging, it lacks some advanced options.

Recommended Reading: Explore compelling examples of blog pages that are engaging and can capture and hold readers' attention.

11. WordPress vs Squarespace: Pricing & Value for Money

When choosing a platform for your website, understanding the pricing parameters is crucial. It not only determines the immediate costs but also influences the long-term investment in your digital presence.

Let's compare WordPress vs Squarespace based on pricing to help you make an informed decision that aligns with your budget and requirements.

WordPress software is free to use. Yet, the costs associated with WordPress primarily revolve around hosting, domain registration, and any premium themes or plugins you choose to enhance your site.

Take a look at WordPress pricing plans.

WordPress Pricing Plan

  • Free: $0

    Limited features and customization options

  • Personal: $4/month

    Custom domain, basic design customization, and email support

  • Premium: $8/month

    Advanced design options, increased storage space, and the ability to remove WordPress.com ads

  • Business: $25/month

    Premium WordPress themes, plugins, advanced customization options, and Google Analytics integration

  • Commerce: $45/month

    Payment gateway integration, product listings management, zero transaction fee for creating your ecommerce website

While many free WordPress themes and plugins are available, some users opt for premium options for additional features and support.

Squarespace operates on a subscription-based pricing model, providing an all-in-one solution that includes hosting, the website builder, and customer support.

The plans are billed on a monthly or annual basis, with a discount for annual payments.

Squarespace Pricing Plan

  • Personal: $16/month

    Custom domain, pre-designed templates, and responsive websites

  • Business: $23/month

    Advanced website analytics, fully integrated ecommerce, templates and mobile-optimized sites

  • Basic Commerce: $27/month

    Pre-designed templates, responsive design, advanced website analytics, fully integrated ecommerce, powerful merchandising

  • Advanced Commerce: $49/month

    Pre-designed templates, advanced website analytics, fully integrated ecommerce, powerful merchandising, advanced shipping and discounting, sell subscriptions

Most Squarespace plans include a free domain for the first year, which adds value to the overall package. This eliminates the need for users to purchase a domain separately.

? WordPress offers more value for money!
  • WordPress is a one-time investment, with various hosting options and endless customization. It's a solid value for those willing to manage hosting. Squarespace, while simpler, comes with a high-end monthly fee but includes hosting.

Now that we've compared the most widely used website builders, it's time to decide which platform aligns best with your website requirements.

Decision O'Clock – WordPress or Squarespace?

As we wrap up our exploration of WordPress vs Squarespace, it's clear that the choice between these website builders depends on your specific needs and preferences.

WordPress is a powerful and flexible option for those seeking unparalleled customization, ownership, and a vast ecosystem of plugins. On the other hand, Squarespace's simplicity, user-friendly interface, and built-in features make it an excellent choice for those who prioritize ease of use.

Comment below and tell us your choice: WordPress or Squarespace, for your website?

If you're still struggling to decide between the two platforms, don't hesitate to contact us for assistance.

Frequently Asked Questions

Squarespace is both a CMS (Content Management System) and a website builder. It combines the functionality of a CMS, allowing users to manage and organize content easily, with the user-friendly features of a website builder, enabling individuals to create and design their websites without extensive technical knowledge.

In the battle of WordPress vs Squarespace, WordPress is often perceived as cheaper because it is an open-source platform, meaning it's free to use. However, additional costs may arise for hosting, domain registration, and premium themes or plugins.

Squarespace, on the other hand, offers an all-in-one solution with hosting included, which simplifies pricing and may seem more straightforward to users.

Yes, many professional web designers use Squarespace. Its intuitive drag-and-drop interface and pre-designed templates make it accessible for designers to create visually appealing websites efficiently.

Squarespace's platform offers a balance between flexibility and ease of use, making it a viable choice for designers who want to streamline the web development process and deliver high-quality websites to their clients.

When comparing WordPress vs Squarespace for blogging, WordPress stands out as a popular choice, offering extensive customization options and a wide range of plugins, providing versatility to users.

However, Squarespace provides an intuitive platform with beautifully designed templates, making it an excellent choice for bloggers who prioritize aesthetics and simplicity. The best platform depends on individual preferences and specific blog requirements.